Web 3.0 apps have an entirely distinct web application architecture from Web 2.0 applications. Consider Medium, a simple blogging platform that allows users to share their own material and connect with that of others.
It may appear easy as a web 2.0 platform, but there’s so much that occurs in Medium’s architecture to make it all conceivable:
To begin, there should be a place to retain critical information such as members, articles, labels, remarks, and likes. This necessitates a dataset that is regularly upgraded.
Secondly, Medium’s economic functionality must be defined by backend programming (developed in a language like Node.js, Java, or Python). What arises, for instance, when a new user registers, creates a new blog, or posts on another user’s blog?
To summarize, when you create a blog post on Medium, you connect with the frontend, which communicates with the backend, which eventually communicates with the dataset. All of this programming is stored on mainframe computers and delivered to users over the internet. This is a nice high-level explanation of how the majority of Web 2.0 applications presently operate.
But that’s all about to change.
Blockchain technology has opened up a whole new world of possibilities for Web 3.0 applications. We’ll concentrate on what the Ethereum blockchain has to offer in this blog.
What distinguishes Web 3.0 apps from the previous versions?
Web 3.0 apps, unlike Web 2.0 technologies like Medium, removes the intermediary. There is no central database for storing app data and no single web application architecture host for hosting backend functionality.
Rather, you may use blockchain to create apps that run on a decentralized virtual system managed by anonymous web application architecture nodes.
By “virtual system,” imply a system that keeps track of a program’s current status as well as all future situations that are possible on it. Blockchains are virtual systems that start with a genesis feature and have very rigorous regulations (i.e., agreement) governing how that configuration can change.
Even better, no single body is in charge of this decentralized virtual system; instead, everybody in the network contributes to its upkeep.
What about a host for the backend? Rather than using the decentralized virtual system to govern Medium’s backend, Web 3.0 applications allow you to develop intelligent agreements that specify the functionality of your web app architecture and distribute them. This indicates that everyone who wants to create a blockchain application must use this common state machine to do it.
What about the front end? With a few modifications, which we’ll discuss later, it basically remains the same.
Let’s have a closer look at how the architecture appears.
A deeper evaluation of Web 3.0 structure
Let’s look a little more closely at what makes this feasible.
1) Blockchain technology
The Ethereum blockchain has been dubbed a “global computer” by some. That’s because it’s a peer-to-peer system of servers that maintains a publicly available, predictable data structure. The principles of the agreement that the peers in the network observe regulate state changes on this automaton.
To put it another way, it’s built to be a state machine that everyone in the world may monitor and modify. As a consequence, this machine is controlled jointly by everybody in the network, rather than by a single entity.
Another thing to keep in mind is that data may only be added to the Ethereum blockchain; it cannot be updated.
2) Agreements that are smart
A smart agreement is a system that manages the Ethereum blockchain and specifies the mechanism that governs the state alterations that occur. High-level technologies like Solidity or Vyper are used to create smart agreements.
Since smart agreement software is kept on the Ethereum blockchain, anyone with access to the network can examine the web app architecture of all smart agreements.
3) Virtual Machine for Ethereum (EVM)
The Ethereum Virtual Machine is the following step, and it performs the reasoning stated in smart agreements as well as handles state changes that occur on this publicly available state machine.
High-level dialects like Solidity and Vyper, which are used to build smart agreements, are not understood by the EVM. You must therefore convert the high-level dialect to bytecode, which the EVM may then perform.
4) The front-end
Lastly, there’s the user interface. The frontend, as previously said, contains UI functionality, but it also interacts with the web app architecture rationality described in smart agreements.
The interaction between the frontend and smart agreements is somewhat more complex. Let’s dig a little further into what’s really on here.
How Does Ethereum’s Frontend Software Interact with Smart Agreements?
We need our frontend to talk to our smart agreements so they can execute operations, but keep in mind that Ethereum is a decentralized system. Each node in the Ethereum system maintains a duplicate of all Ethereum state machine configurations, such as the code and data connected with each smart agreement.
We must engage with one of these nodes in order to connect with the data and functions on a blockchain. This is due to the fact that any node can publish a demand for an EVM operation to be processed. The operation will then be executed by a miner, who will then disseminate the state change to the entire network.
A new transaction can be published in two aspects:
- Install the Ethereum blockchain program on your own node.
- Third-party solutions such as Infura, Alchemy, and Quicknode supply nodes.
You won’t have to cope with the hassles of operating an entire node if you utilize a third-party solution. Admittedly, it can require days to put up a fresh Ethereum node on your own network.
Furthermore, when your DApp grows in size, the value of transporting the entire Ethereum blockchain rises, necessitating the addition of more nodes to increase your network. That’s why you’ll require comprehensive DevOps experts as your network grows more complicated. They’ll assist you in maintaining the network so that you can have consistent availability and responsiveness.
To summarize, many DApps opt to employ solutions like Infura or Alchemy to handle their node network for them in order to prevent these issues. Obviously, there’s a cost because this establishes a centralized waypoint, but that’s a discussion for another day.
Using the Blockchain for Research
As of now, we’ve discussed how to add to the blockchain by first verifying transactions and then transmitting them to it. But what about extracting information from the blockchain’s smart agreements? There are two fundamental approaches to this:
Smart agreement activity
The Web3.js framework can be used to explore and monitor smart agreement updates. You can define a response to be triggered whenever a particular event occurs.
The method described above is effective, although it has some drawbacks. What if, after deploying a smart agreement, you discover you require an event generated that you didn’t specify in the first place? You’d have to reinstall a new smart agreement with that event and information, regrettably.